A status survey to determine population size and describe community structure was conducted during 1995 at each of seven sites where Dirca palustris (leatherwood) has been known to grow in South Carolina. Populations ranged in size from eleven to over 400 plants with a typical population size being about 100 plants. Vegetation analyses using transect lines throughout the population were used to determine the importance values of tree species. The surveyed populations were located in mesic mixed forests where Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) were prevalent. Plants grew along stream floodplains and levees in well drained sandy to sandy loam soils which were slightly acidic.