ABSTRACT The South Mountains form an isolated mountain range in the upper Piedmont of western North Carolina. The basic inventory of the vascular plant species and description of the vegetation types in the South Mountains State Park were completed from March 1975 to September 1976. Collections during this period resulted in 446 species and varieties, about 23% of which were new county records. Vegetation types include: river flood zone, mixed mesophytic, mixed deciduous-white pine, oak-pine, pine, and disturbed areas, most of which are correlated primarily with a topographic moisture gradient. Physical characterization of the area, floristic affinities of the vegetation, endangered and threatened species recorded, and natural area recommendations are discussed.