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Chinquapin Archives

The quarterly newsletter of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society from 1993 - present

Castanea Archives

All articles from Volume 75 (2010) to Volume 83 (2018).
Links to archives on JSTOR and BioOne (covers volume 1 - 83)

Occasional Papers in Eastern Botany Archives

An occasional collection of papers published by the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society.

Articles from our Current Issue

Vascular Plant Flora of Stone Mountain Park, DeKalb County, Georgia, Based on Digitized Specimens in the University of Georgia Herbarium (GA)

Stone Mountain in DeKalb County, Georgia, is a large exposed granite monolith, 514 m (1,686 ft) above sea level and covering 230 ha (560 ac). This monadnock is located in the southwestern portion of Stone Mountain Park, comprising 1,300 ha (3,212 ac) owned by the state of Georgia. Recent specimen digitization efforts at the University of Georgia Herbarium (GA) have greatly facilitated capture of data from historic vouchers collected from this park. Based on these newly available data, the goals of this project were to (1) prepare a vouchered species list for the park, (2) produce a vegetation map based on georeferenced label data, and (3) identify all plant collectors and track collection activities through time and taxon focus. Eighty-one individuals and teams collected 1,207 vouchers (709 species) dated 1846–2011. The largest families were Asteraceae (96 spp.), Poaceae (70 spp.), Fabaceae (49 spp.), Cyperaceae (33 spp.), Rosaceae (21 spp.), and

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The Vascular Flora of Orchard Knob Reservation, Chattanooga, Tennessee

Orchard Knob is a 2.5 ha National Military Park near downtown Chattanooga, Tennessee. This historic site protects a bubble of limestone glade and xeric limestone prairie habitat in an otherwise heavily developed, urban area. A floristic survey was conducted across two growing seasons, yielding 212 taxa across 152 genera and 58 families. Seventy-four non-native taxa were documented, about 35% of the total flora. Six rare, state-ranked species were documented: Baptisia aberrans, Clematis fremontii, Hypericum dolabriforme, Packera paupercula var. appalachiana, Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides, and Viola egglestonii. An exploration of Civil War-era herbarium specimens and historical documents illuminated the historical flora of the site, and through the geolocation of herbarium specimens of select “indicator species,” the authors demonstrated that grassland habitats were once more abundant in the Chattanooga area.

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The Demography of Gentiana autumnalis in Populations Under Varying Management Regimes in New Jersey

ABSTRACT: Gentiana autumnalis (pine barren gentian) is a rare, fall-flowering perennial that is endemic to pine barren habitat from New Jersey to South Carolina. This disturbance-adapted, early successional species is at risk in New Jersey as a result of human interactions, namely growing season mowing and fire suppression. We used a repeated measures design to compare the differences between managed (mowing and prescribed fire) and unmanaged G. autumnalis populations for density, life stage, mortality, and fecundity. Managed populations had a greater gentian density, proportion of reproductive individuals, and seedlings compared to unmanaged populations. Implementing prescribed burns and mowing at previously unmanaged sites prior to spring growth increased gentian density, flowering, and seed set the same year. Our data support that prescribed burning and mowing can be beneficial management tools for the conservation of G. autumnalis and other disturbanceadapted species that require open early-successional habitat. However, their implementation can have negative

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Scientific Note: Facultative Perenniality in the Dwarf Sundew (Drosera brevifolia)

ABSTRACT: The dwarf sundew (Drosera brevifolia) occurs from Uruguay to Virginia. Disjunct populations occur in the southeastern U.S. with the northernmost in Kentucky. Despite this wide distribution, relatively little is known about the biology of this species. It has been described as both annual and biennial. The endangered Kentucky population is considered biennial, but occasionally, live, mature plants have dead flower stalks in early autumn suggesting some may be perennial. In 2013, 40 sundews that germinated in the fall of 2012 were marked as they flowered in 2013. They were observed into a third growing season in 2014 until the end of July. Sixteen plants (40%) died after setting seeds in their second growing season, while nine (22.5%) remained alive, flowered, and set seeds again the following year. Seven of these were still alive at the end of July 2014. Fifteen plants were puzzling as the leaves were dead after

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Phenotypic Variation in Climate-Associated Traits of Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) along Elevation Gradients in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

Red spruce (Picea rubens) is a long-lived tree species that thrives in cool, moist environs. Its ability to adapt to rapidly changing climate is uncertain. In the southern Appalachian Mountains, red spruce reaches its greatest abundance at high elevations, but can also occur across a range of mid and lower elevations, suggesting the possibility of a correlation between genetic variation and habitat. To assess clinal phenotypic variation in functional traits related to climate adaptation, we collected seed from 82 maternal sib families located along replicated elevational gradients in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, TN (GSMNP) and Mount Mitchell State Park, NC (MMSP). The percentage of filled seeds and seed mass increased with elevation, indicating that successful pollination and seed development was greatest at the highest elevations. Seedlings sourced from GSMNP displayed a strong relationship between elevation and bud set when grown under common garden conditions. High elevation families set

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Noteworthy Collections: An Overlooked Specimen of Conyza ramosissima from Virginia

Conyza ramosissima Cronquist (ASTERACEAE) Page County: Rocky slope along road, 5 mi. NW of Luray, 20 June 1950, Bernard Mikula 5222 (FARM). Significance: This is the first report of Conyza ramosissima (syn. Erigeron divaricatus Michaux) from Virginia. The specimen collected by Mikula establishing this record was encountered in the course of a study of herbarium material of C. canadensis (L.) Cronquist to distinguish its varieties [var. canadensis and var. pusilla (Nuttall) Cronquist] as they occur in Virginia; Mikula’s specimen had been initially identified as Erigeron canadensis L. Conyza ramosissima is best distinguished from other species in the genus by its profusely branched habit, generally lacking a well-defined main stem, its relatively low stature, usually ranging 1–3 dm tall, and strigose stem pubescence (Fernald 1950; Strother 2006). It also has distinctive white-margined phyllaries that lack the characteristic green tips found in C. canadensis var. canadensis or the red to purple tips

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Germination, Survival, and Establishment of a Rare Riparian Species Alnus maritima

Abstract: Seed mortality due to low winter temperatures has been proposed as an explanation for the lack of seedling recruitment in natural populations of the rare riparian species Alnus maritima, but other factors such as the absence of essential root symbionts or canopy clearing disturbances could also limit establishment of new individuals. We investigated whether any of these factors could be identified as preventing recruitment into existing seaside alder populations. Stratification studies showed that not only can seeds withstand low temperatures, longer periods of cold stratification promote earlier seed germination and expand the temperature range for germination. Root microbiome studies unexpectedly found that seedlings inoculated with the native microbiome prior to planting had lower survival compared to uninoculated individuals, and uninoculated individuals declined in survivorship after natural inoculation in the field. Canopy disturbance by burning or clipping vegetation promoted neither seedling growth nor survival initially, with seedling survival lower in

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Germination Traits in the Threatened Southeastern Grassland Endemic, Marshallia mohrii (Asteraceae)

Marshallia mohrii (Asteraceae) is a perennial forb endemic to grasslands in the southeastern United States. Despite having been listed as federally threatened for three decades, little is known about its biology and life history. In this study, we examined the role of light, temperature, seed age, and cold stratification on seed dormancy break and germination in M. mohrii. We also quantified soil temperatures in a Ketona glade population of M. mohrii to infer dormancy breaking and germination phenologies under natural conditions. Relatively high proportions (>65%) of cold stratified seeds germinated across a range of temperature regimes in both light and darkness, whereas nonstratified seeds only germinated to high proportions in light at high temperatures. Germination proportions of laboratory stored seeds were slightly greater than freshly matured seeds, but remained much lower than those of cold stratified seeds. According to laboratory experiments, both autumn and spring germination phenologies are possible depending

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Aquatic Vegetation of Springs at Buffalo National River, Arkansas

ABSTRACT: The biodiversity of freshwater springs in the Arkansas Ozarks is poorly described and has received relatively little attention from researchers. Information on the biodiversity of springs is crucial for their management and conservation. This study describes the aquatic and semi-aquatic plant communities and key habitat features of several springs located at Buffalo National River, Arkansas. We report 58 taxa from among all springs, including eight genera of algae, one species of horsetail, three marchantiophytes, and one bryophyte. Among angiosperms, we found 21 species of monocots and 24 species of eudicots. Six non-native species occur among the springs and none are considered to be invasive. Data show that impounded springs tend to have higher plant diversity than springs with primarily lotic geomorphologies. Cluster analysis showed that the springs with a prominent lentic structure were most similar to each other with respect to shared taxa, while the springs with well defined,

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An Assessment of the Vulnerability of Illinois’ Rarest Plant Species to Climate Change

Illinois is home to approximately 2,107 native plant species of which about 16% are listed as threatened or endangered (T & E). In addition to the common threats associated with the decline of these species, climate change is a rapidly emerging threat. Climate predictions for Illinois have estimated that summer temperatures will resemble present-day summers in Texas by mid- to latecentury, while precipitation patterns are less predictable. Using NatureServe’s Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) tool we evaluated the climate change vulnerability for all 331 of Illinois T & E plant species. Overall, we found that over 80% are vulnerable to climate change. Barriers to migration are a leading factor associated with vulnerability in Illinois, where 97% of listed species are affected by anthropogenic barriers and 24% are affected by natural barriers. The sensitivity of species to changes in temperature, precipitation, and hydrology are also associated with vulnerability. The CCVI score

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