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Chinquapin Archives

The quarterly newsletter of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society from 1993 - present

Castanea Archives

The complete archives of Castanea from 1936 to 2021.

Occasional Papers in Eastern Botany Archives

An occasional collection of papers published by the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society.

Articles from our Current Issue

Natural and Cultural History of Xanthorhiza simplicissima

Yellowroot (Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marshall, Ranunculaceae) is a low-growing deciduous shrub native to hardwood forests in the eastern United States. This review synthesizes existing knowledge about yellowroot’s natural and cultural history including traditional uses, contemporary applications, and future implications. Emphasis is placed on the southern Appalachian mountain region, which is the core of its cultural importance. Natural history and ethnobotanical knowledge about yellowroot were collected from published literature, oral histories, and field observations. While it was first described by botanists in the 18th Century, yellowroot was already a well-established and culturally significant plant to the Native peoples of southern Appalachia for

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Modeling Habitat Suitability for Stewartia ovata Across the Southeastern United States

Mountain stewartia (Stewartia ovata) is a rare shrub or small tree endemic to the higher elevation regions of Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama with isolated populations occurring in Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Mississippi. The species is often misidentified or overlooked by land managers and conservationists. As a result, mountain stewartia’s habitat and distribution descriptions are limited for restoration and conservation use. Modeling a species’ habitat suitability has become a critical first step in conserving rare and imperiled plant species. These models allow conservationists to locate previously undocumented populations and prioritize populations and habitats for conservation. This study presents

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Vascular Flora of the Christmount Preserve, Buncombe County, North Carolina

The Christmount Preserve is a botanically diverse and ecologically rich area of approximately 155 ha of southern Appalachian forest held in conservation easement. We conducted a floristic inventory of the preserve to inform conservation efforts on the property. Although the plant diversity within the preserve is an important attraction for residents and visitors, information on its flora is limited. This study builds upon a brief but informative 1996 report of the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program summarizing the preserve’s attributes as a natural area. A total of 317 specimens of vascular plants were collected during 2018–2020 to develop a vouchered

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Reevaluating Genetic Diversity and Structure of Helianthus verticillatus (Asteraceae) after the Discovery of New Populations

Determining population genetic structure of isolated or fragmented species is of critical importance when planning a conservation strategy. Knowledge of the genetic composition and differentiation among populations of a rare or threatened species can aid conservation managers in understanding how, and which, populations to protect. The whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus (Asteraceae), is a federally endangered sunflower species endemic to the southeastern United States. The distribution of the species comprises four known populations within three states: Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia. Recently, new populations were discovered in Marshall County, Mississippi, and Franklin County, Virginia. Here, we carry out a population genetic study

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New Populations of the Rheophytic Macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum Michx. (Hornleaf Riverweed) in West Virginia

Podostemum ceratophyllum (Hornleaf riverweed) is a macrophyte that inhabits swift-water rivers with stable substrates and abundant light in montane and piedmont ecoregions of eastern North America. Within these habitats, P. ceratophyllum is considered a foundation species because the plant can strongly influence community structure by increasing habitat complexity for macroinvertebrates and fishes, and facilitates resources cycling via elemental sequestration, herbivory, and detrital pathways. Currently, the USDA and NatureServe recognize P. ceratophyllum as a conservation concern in some states, but the plant’s status remains uncertain in many other states. In West Virginia, P. ceratophyllum is considered imperiled (S2) by the West

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A Review of Avian Dispersal of Non-Native and Invasive Plants in the Southeastern United States

Non-native and invasive (NNI) plants have spread throughout the southeastern United States. To monitor the spread of NNI plants and implement appropriate management we need to understand the relationship between NNI plants and their avian dispersers. Birds are the primary disperser of many NNI plants, and thus a thorough understanding of their role can aid agencies wishing to control the spread of NNI plants. We examined the literature to assess the current knowledge of the relationship between NNI plants, specifically shrubs, trees, and vines, and their avian dispersers in the southeastern United States. We found 56 papers covering 28 NNI

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An Inventory of a Private Property Illustrates Diverse Cryptogam Floras in North Central Texas

The cryptogamic flora has remained unexplored in much of Texas and here we report 49 bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and a hornwort) and 180 lichen-forming and allied fungi from a small private property in North Central Texas. Of the 229 species reported, 30 lichen-forming fungi (lichens) are here reported for the first time in Texas. Moreover, 76 of all taxa collected are represented by 10 or fewer specimen records in the state. Therefore, one out of every three species collected for this study represents a novel documented occurrence for a taxon belonging to poorly known and ecologically important groups of organisms.

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Scientific Note: Hydrochory in Sabal minor (Arecaceae)

The current cycle of global warming has contracted some range restricted species while concurrently expanding the range of more adaptable species. Sabal minor is a member of Arecaceae, the palm family, and is confined to lower latitudes in both western hemispheres. Latitudinal limitation of S. minor is believed to be related to low temperature intolerance. However the exact mechanism remains elusive. In this study reproductive fecundity of anthropogenically introduced populations in southern Virginia Beach, Virginia, was evaluated. Diaspore viability, approximated by floatability of fruits, was used to evaluate distribution by hydrochory. This study also documents a previously unidentified condition of

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Scientific Note: Capsule-Seed Allometric Relationships in Ludwigia ravenii (Onagraceae), a Critically Imperiled Wetland-Obligate

Ludwigia ravenii is a critically imperiled tetraploid known historically from Virginia to Florida. There have been no published studies examining the number of seeds produced per capsule to guide researchers and conservationists in planning studies or collection efforts. Such data are important considering current guidelines by the Center for Plant Conservation recommend that no more than 10 percent of a population’s seed production be collected in a single season. To fill this void, our objective was to examine and report on capsule-seed allometric relationships in the species. Our study is based on 25 capsules from six plants from the North

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Phylogenetic placement of Trifolium kentuckiense (Fabaceae), a new member of the native eastern North American clover clade

In 2013, a new species of clover endemic to Kentucky was described. This species, Trifolium kentuckiense (Fabaceae), has yet to be placed in a phylogeny but is hypothesized to be most closely related to T. reflexum based on morphology. We present phylogenetic evidence from the nuclear (ITS) and plastid genomes (trnL and ndhA introns) that T. kentuckiense is a member of a clade of seven Trifolium species native to eastern North America. Within this clade, T. kentuckiense is strongly placed in a clade with three other annual/biennial Trifolium species (T. bejariense, T. carolinianum, and T. reflexum); it is sister to

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Scientific Note: Loblolly Pine Traumatic Resin Ducts Serve as Indicators of Cool-Season Weather Events at Nags Head, North Carolina

We present a method for recording cool-season (mid-October–May) weather events near Nags Head, North Carolina. Standardized traumatic resin duct frequency (TRDsf) formations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were determined from earlywood radial growth samples using the number of traumatic resin ducts that occur in response to stressful weather events. Based on a sample of 39 cores collected at Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve during summer 2020, we tested if the occurrence of traumatic resin ducts in the earlywood was caused by late-season tropical cyclones, mid-latitude windstorms, and snow/ice storms and served as a proxy for extreme weather frequency during

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2022 Elizabeth Ann Bartholomew Award Nominations

Elizabeth Ann Bartholomew (1912-1985) served as the Secretary of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club from 1946 until 1981. Her life was devoted to plants, and she transferred her interest in plants and nature to students of all ages and walks of life. The Southern Appalachian Botanical Society annually presents the Elizabeth Ann Bartholomew Award in memory of her untiring service to the public, to plant systematics, and to this organization. This award was established in 1989 and has been presented to individuals who have also distinguished themselves in professional and public service that advances our knowledge and appreciation of the

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2021 Reviewers

The Editorial Committee gratefully acknowledges the following people who reviewed manuscripts for Castanea in 2021

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