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Chinquapin Archives

The quarterly newsletter of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society from 1993 - present

Castanea Archives

The complete archives of Castanea from 1936 to 2021.

Occasional Papers in Eastern Botany Archives

An occasional collection of papers published by the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society.

Articles from our Current Issue

Dendrochronological Reconstruction of the Historical Invasion of Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae, Feeding on Canaan Fir, Abies balsamea subsp. phanerolepis in the Central Appalachian Mountains

During biological invasions, the initial arrival and establishment of invading populations often go unnoticed for many years yet information on early invasion dynamics is key to understanding and managing invasions. We used the presence of ring discoloration, “rotholz”, in tree cores to date historical Adelges piceae outbreaks and reconstruct its invasion history in 14 Abies balsamea subsp. phanerolepis stands in West Virginia. In 2018, we collected and cross-dated tree ring samples from 676 cores. We measured ring width increments and recorded the presence of rotholz in each annually dated ring. Rotholz was present in tree cores sampled from each of

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Ecological Correlates of Reproductive Output in a Tennessee Population of Short’s Bladderpod, Physaria globosa (Brassicaceae)

Physaria globosa (Brassicaceae), commonly known as Short’s Bladderpod, is a federally protected species restricted to Tennessee, Kentucky, and southern Indiana. In 2016, we studied aspects of life history and ecology in a population of P. globosa near Hartsville, Tennessee. Our objectives were to document fecundity-related life history traits and to examine the potential influence of light levels and soil depth on plant growth and reproductive output. In addition, we examined 45 herbarium specimens of P. globosa to assess the potential relationship between taproot size and number of inflorescences per plant. We found the strongest positive relationships between the number of

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The Effects of Varying Nutrient Availability on Females and Hermaphrodites of the Gynodioecious Geranium maculatum

Sexual dimorphism in plant growth and/or reproductive responses to the surrounding environment has been documented in some plant species. In gynodioecious plants, it is especially important to understand whether females and hermaphrodites differ in their response to environmental stressors, as the fitness of females relative to hermaphrodites determines the extent to which these separate sexes are maintained in natural populations. Soil nutrient availability is of particular importance given the different nutrient requirements of male and female sexual functions in plants. Here, we evaluated and compared the growth of females and hermaphrodites of Geranium maculatum in response to varying levels of

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Community Science Success for Herbarium Transcription in Arkansas: Building a Network of Students and Volunteers for Notes from Nature

An estimated 390 million herbarium specimens worldwide provide data for scientific study, but specimen labels must be transcribed into standardized databases to be readily useable by the scientific community. Yet, data entry cannot be completed with current staffing and funding. Notes from Nature provides an infrastructure for community science transcription of natural history specimen labels with tutorials and a platform for communication among community scientists and researchers. The Plants of Arkansas project, now led by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, built an active transcription community by coordinating local universities, recruiting service organizations, and engaging worldwide users online. Training members of

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Noteworthy Collections: First documented antheridia on Palamocladium leskeoides (Brachytheciaceae) in North America

The collection reported here of Palamocladium leskeoides, made in Tennessee, represents the first documented observation of antheridia on this species in North America. Palamocladium leskeoides is a dioicous moss species with a pantropical distribution. Uncommon in the United States, it grows in disjunct populations in moist habitats on calcareous rock. We visited Rock Island State Park (Warren County, Tennessee) in 2019 and relocated a population of this species that was last collected from that location in 1979. Two small voucher specimens were collected and one was observed to have a perigonium containing antheridia attached to the stem. The invasive evergreen

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Clarifying Taxonomic Boundaries in Nuphar sagittifolia (Nymphaeaceae): Insights from Morphology and Population Genetic Diversity

Nuphar sagittifolia (Nymphaeaceae), Cape Fear spatterdock, is an aquatic macrophyte endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Plain and of conservation concern in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in the United States. The existence of populations of unclear taxonomic identity has precluded assessment of the number of populations, distribution, and conservation needs of N. sagittifolia. The circumscription of the species was re-assessed using morphological and genetic analyses. Approximately 30 individuals from each of 21 populations of Nuphar across the N. sagittifolia range were included in genetic and morphological analyses, along with the type populations for three taxa. Genetic diversity was assessed

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Effects of Grassy Bald Management on Plant Community Composition within The Roan Mountain Massif

Within the Roan Mountain massif in the southern Appalachian Mountains, grassy balds are important, yet threatened ecosystems dominated by native graminoids with many endemic and endangered species. Restoration efforts have been conducted for 30 years by several agencies. In 1987–1988 a vegetation analysis was conducted on these balds to characterize plant communities before intensive management began. In summer 2020, we resurveyed the vegetation using similar methodologies on Round, Jane, and part of Grassy Ridge Balds to assess the impact of management activities. Percent coverage of vegetation type was recorded in 226 one m2 plots along 11 transects. Management history was

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Two Coastal Plain Dichanthelium (Poaceae: Paniceae) Disjunct in Tennessee Grasslands and Their Conservation

Dichanthelium wrightianum, a species of panic grass whose North American range is exclusive to the Coastal Plain, is reported from Tennessee for the first time. A single population of this species was discovered in a wet grassland remnant in the Eastern Highland Rim physiographic region alongside many other species disjunct from the Coastal Plain. Another Coastal Plain Dichanthelium, D. roanokense, was found at a second wet grassland nearby. While D. roanokense was previously reported for Tennessee, it has not been recently documented or confirmed to be extant within the state and its current status should be reviewed. The ecology and

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Determinants of Population Genetic Structure in Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene (Fabaceae) in the Southeastern United States

Chamaecrista fasciculata is a widely distributed, phenotypically variable species in the eastern U.S. Whereas studies have demonstrated genetic structure and local adaptation in northern areas of its distribution, there has been no comparison of genetic variability among populations at the southern extent where phenotypic variation is more complex. We characterized genetic variation at 14 microsatellite loci for populations in Mississippi and Alabama and compared this to variation in a phenotypic trait, leaf pubescence. Geographic distance, climatic variables, and elevation were evaluated as factors to explain the observed patterns of genetic diversity. A significant amount of variation (19%) resided among populations,

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