Evergreen trees of medium to large size. Wood resinous. Leaves of two kinds, the primary or juvenile leaves spirally arranged, linear, the predominant form on the young seedling, represented on the older plant by lanceolate, persistent, green or brown-scarious bud-scales; each scale subtending a cluster (fascicle) of 2 or 3 (1 to 5 in other areas) linear, secondary leaves (needles); fascicles wrapped at base in a scarious sheath which persists, as does the fascicle, for several seasons. Male cones clustered at base of season’s growth, each bract with two pollen-sacs on its lower surface. Female cones solitary or verticillate, in some species persisting on the tree for several seasons; cone-scales (together with fused and inconspicuous bracts) each supporting two winged seeds.