Current and Historical Variation in Wiregrass (Aristida stricta) Abundance and Distribution Is Not Detectable from Soil d13C Measurements in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Savannas

Published:

March 2013

Author

Jennifer L. Schafer

Additional Authors

Bradley P. Breslow, Michael G. Just, Matthew G. Hohmann, Stephanie N. Hollingsworth, Samantha L. Swatling-Holcomb, William A. Hoffmann,

Plant species distributions and transitions between vegetation types are determined by numerous factors, including disturbances such as fire. Documentation of past changes in the distribution and structure of fire-dependent ecosystems is necessary to assess the success of land management in maintaining historic vegetation types. In our study system—longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) savannas and embedded wetlands (i.e., pocosins)—wiregrass is dependent on frequent burning. We used soil carbon (C) isotopes to test for past changes in the abundance of wiregrass and for shifts in the ecotone between savanna and pocosin in four sites at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Wiregrass has a C4 photosynthetic pathway and therefore produces organic matter enriched in 13C compared to other dominant species in the community that have a C3 photosynthetic pathway. At each of the four sites, we measured profiles of soil d13C to a depth of 1 m at four locations along the vegetation gradient from upland savannas to lowland pocosins. Surface soil d13C, which reflects C inputs from current vegetation, did not differ along the gradient despite a decrease in wiregrass cover from savanna, where it is abundant, to pocosin, where it is absent. Enrichment of soil d13C with depth was indistinguishable from effects of decomposition, indicating that past variation in the abundance and distribution of wiregrass was not detectable in our study sites. Our results suggest that wiregrass currently does not produce, and historically has not produced, enough biomass to influence soil d13C values along the savanna-pocosin gradient.

Keywords

Carbon, depth profiles, ecotone, pocosin, species distributions